The UAE has an open economy with a high per
capita income and a sizable annual trade surplus.
Its wealth is based on oil and gas output (about
33% of GDP), and the fortunes of the economy
fluctuate with the prices of those commodities.
At present levels of production, (approx. two
million barrels a day) oil and gas reserves
should last for over 100 years.
The largest and wealthiest of these emirates, Abu Dhabi, covers 87% of the UAE's total area and accounts for 90% of the federation's oil and gas production and 60% of the UAE's Gross Domestic Product.
Since the oil and gas reserves are much smaller than Abu Dhabi's, Dubai has worked to become a regional commercial and transportation center.
Sharjah, too, has oil and gas deposits, but it has focused on light manufacturing and port facilities. The rest of the emirates -- Ajman, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-
Qaiwain (collectively known as the northern emirates) -- are considerably poorer than the other UAE emirates, and together accounted for only 6.6% of the UAE's GDP in
According to various *reports,
the UAE has not found any permanent solutions to its principal internal challenges: demographics, the dominance of oil in the state, and the paucity of water supplies.
In addition, Abu Dhabi's inability to achieve progress in reaching its goals through its economic, military or political
The UAE cannot guarantee its security on its own. It is a small state surrounded by very large states and it has
forces. (The UAE signed a defense pact with France in 1995 and Britain in 1996 and Turkey in 1997.)
Despite an enormous investment in arms, for instance, the UAE's armed services -- either on their own or in combination with the GCC -- cannot provide an effective deterrent against
Iran. Nor have the defense treaties with Britain and France decreased the federation's dependence on American force projection capabilities.
and other provisions of the UAE constitution
guarantees the independence of the judicial branch under the Supreme Court of the Union. But unfortunately under the UAE system the Executive without an implied or express power would interfere even in a clear case of acquittal by the Courts there, leading in unlawful punishments etc.
The federal system
The UAE has two networks of civil court systems:
the federal system and the local systems. While
most (but not all) emirates have ceded civil
jurisdiction from the local to the federal
level, a network of the Sharia courts still
functions in each emirate.
The federal court system consists of three
levels: primary courts, appeals courts, and the
Supreme Court. Unusually, this system was
established on a framework proposed by the
The provisions of the UAE constitution did not
make clear how the federal system could
establish a structure of federal courts beyond
the Federal Supreme Court. The Ministry of
Justice therefore sought guidance from the
Federal Supreme Court on how the constitution
was to be interpreted; the resulting
interpretation helped form the basis for the
three-tier federal system.
The local system
The local systems are far older, dating back to
the pre-independence era and sometimes well
before. Local systems generally consisted of two
kinds of courts: shari‘a courts and rulers’
Shari‘a courts generally operate on the
presumption that they have general jurisdiction
in a manner similar to the Saudi courts. The
courts of the rulers of the member emirates
originated out of the view that settling
disputes was an integral part of governing.
These courts formalized to varying degrees, some
staffed with professional judges and operating
on the basis of codified law.
With the creation of the federal system, all but
two emirates (Dubai and Ras al-Khayma) opted to
cede their jurisdiction over civil, criminal,
and administrative cases. Shari‘a courts
continue to operate however, throughout the UAE.
The UAE operates according to a' niyaba' system
in which investigation and prosecution of crimes
is a judicial function. The 'niyaba' is headed
by the Attorney General and overseen by the
Ministry of Justice. Qualifications for a niyaba
position are similar to those for a judgeship.
As with judges, the Attorney General and members
of the niyaba are appointed by the UAE president
after nomination by the minister of justice. The
two emirates retaining jurisdiction over local
criminal cases have their own prosecution
about the UAE
click the following links:
JUDICIARY - UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
THE APPOINTMENT OF JUDGES
DEATH PENALTY IN THE UAE
UAE LAW, EXTRADITION
TREATIES & CRIMINAL MATTERS
Supreme Council - Rulers of the Seven Emirates
H.H. Shaikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan,
Ruler of Abu Dhabi
Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice
President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai
Dr Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed Al Qassimi
Ruler of Sharjah
Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammed Al Qassimi
Ruler of Ras al-Khaimah
Sheikh Rashid bin Ahmed Al Mu'alla
Ruler of Umm al-Qaiwain
Sheikh Humaid bin Rashid Al Nuaimi
Ruler of Ajman
Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi
Ruler of Fujairah
Princes and Deputies of the Rulers
Shaikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince
Abu Dhabi and Chief of Staff of the UAE Armed Forces.
H.E. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Crown Prince of Dubai and Minister of Defence.
Click the Link here at:
Crown Princes, Deputies and the UAE Ministry
The UAE's foreign policy, much like its domestic politics, has been defined largely by border disputes and the politics of the individual emirates. Currently the UAE has territorial disputes with three of its immediate neighbors: Iran, Oman and Qatar; in the past, it has clashed with Saudi Arabia as well.
The most serious such conflict, however, is the long-standing dispute with Iran over three Gulf islands: Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs. Since 1992, this dispute has come to define the UAE's entire relationship with Iran.
visit the following links for
UAE Disputes ;
National Disputes ; Claims
Three Islands ;
Musa Island ;
& Lesser Tumb ;
The History of Islands
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,
GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat , Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Sheikh Zaid Bin Sultan Al-Nahayan, President,
Ruler of Abu Dhabi, P.O.Box: 280, Abu Dhabi,
United Arab Emirates (UAE).
of the Interior P.O. Box 398, Abu Dhabi,
United Arab Emirates
of Foreign Affairs, Post Office Box 1, Abu
United Arab Emirates,
Tel: 011 971 2 6652-200
Fax: 011 971 2 6653-849
Sheikh Maktum Bin Rashid Al-Maktum
Prime Minister, Ruler of Dubai
P.O. Box: 12848,United Arab Emirates
of the United Arab Emirates in America
Chief of Mission: Ambassador
Ambassador Asri Said Ahmad
FAX:  (202) 243-2432
telephone:  (202) 243-2400
chancery: 3522 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20037
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcelle M. WAHBA
(since 4 Oct. 2001)
embassy: Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
mailing address: P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi; American Embassy Abu Dhabi, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-6010
(pouch) Work week is Saturday through Wednesday
telephone:  (2) 4436691
FAX:  (2) 4435441
of the United Arab Emirates in India
EP-12, Chandragupta Marg, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi - 110021
Tel: 91-11-670830, 670945, 6872822, 6872937
Telex : 31-72325EMATIN Telefax : 91-11-6873272